Saturday, August 7, 2010

Hales Corners Challenge XII!

It's coming, it's coming!  It will be here before you know it.

Four rounds all in one day - a test of stamina for sure.  Here are the particulars:

Hales Corners Challenge XII
October 16, 2010

10 U.S. Grand Prix points.
4SS, G/60. 2 Sections: Open & Reserve (under 1600).
Crowne Plaza Milwaukee Airport Hotel—6401 S. 13th Street (near airport).

EF: $35-Open, $25-Reserve, both $5 more after 10/13. Comp EF for USCF 2200+, contact
TD for details.

$$ Open=1st-$325 (guaranteed), 2nd-$175 (guaranteed), A-$100, B & Below-$75;
$$ Reserve =1st-$100, 2nd-$75, D-$50, E & Below-$40.

8:30-9:30, Rds: 10-1-3:30-6. Ent: Payable to SWCC, c/o Allen Becker, 6105 Thorncrest Drive, Greendale, WI 53129 (
QUESTIONS TO: TD Tom Fogec, 414-405-4207 (cell)

In addition to the regular prizes, Goddesschess is sponsoring prizes exclusively for the chess femmes who come out and play.  For Challenge XII, if you draw - you win $; if you win - you win more $.  If you draw or win against a player rated 100 or more points than you, you win yet more $; if you draw or win against a player rated 150 or more points than you, you win even more $$.  Prizes in the Reserve Section are one-half the prizes for chess femmes in the Open:

W 150 ELO or higher = $30
D ditto = $15

W 100 ELO or higher = $20
D ditto = $10

W = $10
D = $5

Goddesschess prizes are in addition to any other prize a chess femme may win.  The top female finisher in the Open and Reserve sections will have entry fee for Challenge XIII paid for by Goddesschess, should they choose to play.  The winner in the Reserve Section from Challenge XI was Rachel Ulrich - who recently participated in the Susan Polgar Invitational in Lubbock, Texas.  No chess femmes played in the Open Section in HCC XI - and we want to change that!

We hope to see a record-breaking number of female players participating in the Hales Corners Challenge XII.  Come on chess femmes, get that Goddess mojo working...

Southwest Chess Club website

Cozy "Neanderthal" Bedroom Discovered

Yeah - the coverings were 1000 count Egyptian cotton with raw silk edging and the bed was made out of first generation rosewood from -- well, okay, I'm getting carried away :)  Truth to tell, this is just one more chunk taken out of the formerly popular but grossly wrong conception that "Neanderthal" was something less than fully human.  Come on scientists - fess up - those dudes back in the 19th century were wrong, way wrong!  More and more evidence is coming to light to show just how wrong they were.  I confidently predict that as we get ever-more sophisticated in our DNA analysis, we will see that "Neanderthal" never went extinct - they are walking among us today in more ways than one - not just comprising up to 4% of the genome in some modern humans.  After all, there is no way we can do DNA analysis on every single living person today, but I would start with requesting volunteers with natural red hair, fair skin and blue eyes.

From 'Sis.  Article at Discovery News
Neanderthal's Cozy Bedroom Unearthed
Even though it isn't wired for broadband, this prehistoric domicile does have beds and even a fireplace.
By Jennifer Viegas
Fri Aug 6, 2010 07:00 AM ET

Anthropologists have unearthed the remains of an apparent Neanderthal cave sleeping chamber, complete with a hearth and nearby grass beds that might have once been covered with animal fur.

Neanderthals inhabited the cozy Late Pleistocene room, located within Esquilleu Cave in Cantabria, Spain, anywhere between 53,000 to 39,000 years ago, according to a Journal of Archaeological Science paper concerning the discovery.

Living the ultimate clean and literally green lifestyle, the Neanderthals appear to have constructed new beds out of grass every so often, using the old bedding material to help fuel the hearth.

"It is possible that the Neanderthals renewed the bedding each time they visited the cave," lead author Dan Cabanes told Discovery News.

Cabanes, a researcher at the Weizmann Institute of Science's Kimmel Center for Archaeological Research, added that these hearth-side beds also likely served as sitting areas during waking hours for the Neanderthals.

"In some way, they were used to make the area near the hearths more comfortable," he said, mentioning that artifacts collected from various other Neanderthal sites suggest the inhabitants prepared stone tools, cooked, ate and snoozed near warming fires.

For this study, Cabanes and his team collected sediment samples from the Spanish cave. Detailed analysis of the samples allowed the scientists to reconstruct what materials were once present in certain parts of the cave at particular times.

The bedding material was identified based on the presence and arrangement of multiple phytoliths from grasses near the hearth area. Phytoliths are tiny fossilized particles formed of mineral matter by a once-living plant.

There was no evidence of plants growing, soil developing or animal transport of phytoliths via dung, so the scientists believe the only plausible explanation is that Neanderthals gathered the grass and placed it in this room of the cave.

While the hearth contained some grass phytoliths, most belonged to wood and bark, "indicating that this material was the main type of fuel used," according to the researchers. Some animal bones were also tossed into the hearth, perhaps to dispose of them after dinner and/or for use as extra fire fuel.

Evidence is building that Neanderthals in other locations constructed such functional living spaces within caves and rock shelters.

Earlier this year, Josep Vallverdu of the Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution and his team identified a "sleeping activity area" at Spain's Abric Romani rock shelter.

Similar to the Esquilleu Cave finds, Vallverdu and his colleagues discovered the remains of hearths spaced enough for seating and sleeping areas.

"This set of combustion activity areas suggests analogy with sleeping and resting activity areas of modern foragers," Vallverdu and his team wrote. They added that such information can allow anthropologists to estimate the size of Neanderthal populations, in addition to learning more about how they lived.

The big question, according to Cabanes, is how such a resourceful species went extinct.

"In my opinion, Neanderthal extinction may have been caused by several factors working at the same time," he said. "Environmental changes, a slightly different social organization, a different rate of reproduction, spread of diseases, direct competition for resources and many other factors may have played an important role in the fate of Neanderthals."

He and other researchers have also not ruled out that Neanderthals were simply absorbed into the modern human population. [Note: That could not have happened if Neanderthals were not already fully human - no viable offspring would be possible from cross-breeding.]

Cabanes is hopeful that future analysis of phytoliths, as well as other less obvious clues that have often been overlooked by scientists in the past, may shed additional light on the still-mysterious Neanderthals.

2010 Juniors and Girls U-20 World Chess Championships

Girls U20 World Chess Championship
Chotowa-Czarna, Poland 2010-08-03/2010-08-16
Rate of play 90'/40 m.+30'/all & 30"/move
Arbiter: IA Andrzej Filipowicz

Alisa Melekhina of the USA is currently in 15th place after 4 rounds, with 3.0.  Things are tight at the top but there are 13 rounds to play!  Current Girls U20 standings:

Place SNo. Title Name Fed. FIDE Total ∑Rn-1 Prog.

1 3 WGM Girya, Olga RUS 2376 4.0 6651 10.0
2 24 Abdulla, Khayala Mardan AZE 2193 3.5 6910 8.0
3 8 WIM Muminova, Nafisa UZB 2290 3.5 6901 9.5
4 13 WFM Mammadova, Gulnar Marfat AZE 2260 3.5 6795 9.5
5 1 IM Muzychuk, Anna SLO 2527 3.5 6697 9.5
6 5 WIM Ohme, Melanie GER 2326 3.5 6625 9.5
7 7 WIM Ziaziulkina, Nastassia BLR 2293 3.5 6569 9.5
8 11 WGM Padmini, Rout IND 2275 3.5 6483 9.5
9 16 CM Bhakti, Kulkarni Pradip IND 2249 3.5 6223 8.0
10 31 WFM Gosciniak, Maria POL 2149 3.0 6855 9.0
11 10 WGM Nemcova, Katerina CZE 2282 3.0 6699 9.0
12 18 WFM Kulon, Klaudia POL 2230 3.0 6627 8.0
13 20 WIM Nakhbayeva, Guliskhan KAZ 2216 3.0 6453 8.0
14 17 WIM Skinke, Katrina LAT 2237 3.0 6418 8.0
15 12 WIM Melekhina, Alisa USA 2265 3.0 6375 8.0
16 22 WFM Toth, Sarolta HUN 2207 3.0 6371 8.0
17 4 WIM Severiukhina, Zoja RUS 2341 3.0 6366 7.0
18 26 WIM Pavlidou, Ekaterini GRE 2182 3.0 6216 8.0
19 55 Khanamiryan, Ani ARM 2014 2.5 6758 4.5
20 30 Tsirulnik, Maritsa UKR 2153 2.5 6656 6.5
21 41 WFM Iwanow, Anna POL 2097 2.5 6626 5.5
22 38 Newrkla, Katharina AUT 2105 2.5 6444 6.0
23 53 Kaya, Emel TUR 2015 2.5 6337 4.5
24 6 WGM Guramishvili, Sopiko GEO 2298 2.5 6318 6.0
25 25 WFM Warakomska, Anna POL 2192 2.5 6295 7.5
26 15 WFM Olsarova, Tereza CZE 2252 2.5 6266 6.5
27 14 WGM Corke, Anya ENG 2257 2.5 6148 5.0
28 34 WIM Andrenko, Irina UKR 2133 2.5 6039 5.0
29 49 WFM Rysbayeva, Nazerke KAZ 2052 2.0 6859 7.0
30 51 Zmarzly, Aleksandra POL 2026 2.0 6648 4.5
31 2 WGM Cori Tello, Deysi Estela PER 2403 2.0 6632 7.0
32 33 WFM Guadamuro Torrente, Anabel ESP 2137 2.0 6617 6.0
33 59 Dragojevic, Marija SRB 1986 2.0 6594 5.0
34 52 WFM Chierici, Marianna ITA 2016 2.0 6590 5.0
35 28 WFM Nesterovskaya, Anzhelika UKR 2177 2.0 6589 5.5
36 45 WFM Labedz, Patrycja POL 2076 2.0 6572 4.0
37 56 Kasperek, Joanna POL 2001 2.0 6559 5.0
38 63 Anu, Bayar MGL 1935 2.0 6551 5.0
39 61 Tomaszewska, Luiza POL 1968 2.0 6514 5.0
40 43 Mareckova, Martina CZE 2095 2.0 6483 4.0
41 36 WFM Baciu, Diana MDA 2127 2.0 6465 6.0
42 47 WFM Osmanodja, Filiz GER 2061 2.0 6421 4.0
43 44 WIM Heredia Serrano, Carla Sofia ECU 2080 2.0 6349 5.0
44 21 WFM Rysbayeva, Aigerim KAZ 2209 2.0 6289 4.5
45 32 WFM Exler, Veronika AUT 2143 2.0 6225 5.0
46 50 Skrzypczak, Anna POL 2028 2.0 6212 4.0
47 62 WFM Guo, Emma AUS 1965 2.0 6119 3.0
48 37 WFM Adamowicz, Katarzyna POL 2123 2.0 6086 5.0
49 39 Forestier, Carole FRA 2103 2.0 6074 6.0
50 23 WFM Semenova, Elena RUS 2194 2.0 6001 4.0
51 29 WIM Agrest, Inna SWE 2174 2.0 5943 4.0
52 40 Uta, Adeline-Ramona ROU 2099 2.0 4476 6.0
53 46 Pratyusha, Bodda IND 2073 1.5 6804 5.0
54 48 Deur, Zrinka CRO 2061 1.5 6724 4.0
55 64 Correa, Jaqueline Pamplona BRA 1928 1.5 6699 3.0
56 58 Unapkoshvili, Nani GEO 1997 1.5 6598 2.5
57 69 Orehek, Spela SLO 1883 1.5 6533 5.0
58 27 WFM Lach, Aleksandra POL 2179 1.5 6444 5.0
59 65 Krumova, Ani BUL 1916 1.5 6412 2.5
60 35 WFM Saduakassova, Dinara KAZ 2131 1.5 6264 5.0
61 42 Edes, Zsofia SVK 2097 1.5 6224 2.5
62 9 WIM Ozturk, Kubra TUR 2286 1.5 6171 3.5
63 19 WIM Butuc, Maria RUS 2220 1.5 6001 2.5
64 54 WFM Petrova, Irina UKR 2014 1.0 6841 2.5
65 60 WFM Ursente, Maria-Eugenia ROU 1978 1.0 6584 2.0
66 77 Gora, Antonina POL 1579 1.0 6535 4.0
67 67 Lis, Marcelina POL 1905 1.0 6399 3.0
68 71 Lepeskaite, Migle LTU 1801 1.0 6326 1.0
69 70 Jablonska, Sabina POL 1876 1.0 6290 2.0
70 73 Cyboran, Katarzyna POL 1777 1.0 6226 2.0
71 72 Vanhuyse, Nele BEL 1779 1.0 6169 1.0
72 75 Oliver, Tamzin L AUS 1737 1.0 6066 1.0
73 81 Pedrak, Paulina POL 0 1.0 4279 4.0
74 80 Hoek, Adriana RSA 0 1.0 4179 3.0
75 79 Bryan-Vissi, Pearl CYP 0 1.0 4119 2.0
76 74 Rykala, Monika POL 1747 1.0 2207 4.0
77 57 Tonel, Giulia ITA 2001 0.5 6666 1.5
78 68 WFM Ho, En Huei Danielle SIN 1898 0.5 6287 1.5
79 78 WCM Mejia, Salinas Lluvia Angélica MEX 0 0.5 6215 1.5
80 76 Ferreira, Susana Carolina G POR 1726 0.0 6069 0.0
81 66 Misovic, Sanja MNE 1907 0.0 6056 0.0

Players 1, 2 and 3 in each Championship win gold, silver and bronze medals, players through #8 win trophies/cups, and the following cash prizes are also awarded:

1. WORLD JUNIOR U-20 CHAMPIONSHIP – prizes: 15.300 Euro

I - 4.000 Euro II - 3.000 Euro III - 2.500 Euro IV - 2.000 Euro
V - 1.500 Euro VI - 1.000 Euro VII - 800 Euro - VIII - 500 Euro

2. WORLD GIRLS U-20 CHAMPIONSHIP - prizes: 10.100 Euro

I - 3.000 Euro II - 2.000 Euro III - 1.500 Euro IV - 1.000 Euro
V - 800 Euro VI - 700 Euro VII - 600 Euro - VIII - 500 Euro

2010 5th FIDE Women's Grand Prix - Ulaanbaatar

Round 8 Results, Standings and Round 9 Pairings:

Round 8 (August 7, 2010)
Koneru, Humpy - Stefanova, Antoaneta 1-0 35 D10 Slav Defence
Hou Yifan - Zhu Chen * 0
Shen Yang - Zhao Xue 1-0 79 E32 Nimzo Indian 4.Qc2
Xu Yuhua - Kosintseva, Tatiana ½-½ 23 C95 Ruy Lopez Breyer
Sebag, Marie - Munguntuul, Batkhuyag 1-0 33 C78 Ruy Lopez Moeller Defence
Yildiz, Betul Cemre - Chiburdanidze, Maia 0-1 38 B00 Owen or Nimzowitsch Defence

1. Koneru, Humpy g IND 2600 5½ 2608
2. Hou Yifan g CHN 2577 5 2629
3. Kosintseva, Tatiana m RUS 2562 5 2586
4. Stefanova, Antoaneta g BUL 2560 5 2589
5. Zhao Xue g CHN 2462 5 2567
6. Chiburdanidze, Maia g GEO 2514 5 2575
7. Shen Yang wg CHN 2435 3½ 2449
8. Xu Yuhua g CHN 2488 3½ 2440
9. Zhu Chen g QAT 2476 2½ 2387
10. Munguntuul, Batkhuyag wg MGL 2421 2½ 2376
11. Sebag, Marie g FRA 2519 2½ 2327
12. Yildiz, Betul Cemre wm TUR 2235 2 2315

To say that things are tight at the top is rather an understatement :)  Please note - I just checked the official website and it does not yet have a result listed for the game between Hou Yifan and Zhu Chen - don't know what's going on there or how they can do an official cross-table tally if the score is missing.  Hmm...

R9 Pairings:
GM Zhu Chen 2476 - WGM Shen Yang 2435
GM Chiburdanidze Maia 2514 - GM Hou Yifan 2577
IM Munguntuul Batkhuyag 2421 - WIM Yildiz Betul Cemre 2235
GM Stefanova Antoaneta 2560 - GM Sebag Marie 2519
GM Kosintseva Tatiana 2562 - GM Koneru Humpy 2600
GM Zhao Xue 2462 - GM Xu Yuhua 2488

2010 British Chess Championships

British Championships
July 25 - August 7, 2010

GM Michael Adams entered this year and there should have been no doubt from the moment he sat down to play R1.  He won the tournament convincingly with 9.5/11.  I was happy to see a player of Adams' calibre and long-time top player status playing for the British title after all these years!  The 5,000 Pounds first prize (British Champion) didn't hurt either and I think he also won an extra 1,500 Pounds for winning the title English Champion.  A nice payday - I think it's about $10,000 USD. 

IM Jovanka Houska is once again crowned the Women's Champion by virtue of her finish 6.5/11 in 19th place overall with 4 wins, 5 draws and 2 losses. I'm not sure - it looks like she wins 500 Pounds for the British Women's title and another 500 Pounds for the English Women's title.  Such a discrepancy in the prize structure between the Men's and Women's titles is quite disgusting - it's not even half.  No wonder more women didn't come out and try for them. 

Only two other women vied for the overall titles and women's titles (78 players): 
65 Messam-Sparks, Lateefah w 4.5 ENG F 1904
72 Dines, Sheila J w 3.5 ENG F 1931

Mainz Chess Classic

From the Chess Tigers website and TWIC's coverage:

After the first day, 12 are perfect in the Grenke Open (701 players) with 5.0 scores (rapid chess) - vying for the title World Rapid Chess Champion.  Chess Classic

My interest lies in the chess femmes, and among the top are:

(20) WGM Natalia Zhukova (UKR 2516) with 4.0
(24) GM Alexandra Kosteniuk (RUS 2522) with 4.0
(48) IM Anna Zatonskih (USA 2470) with 4.0 (go, Anna go!)
(50) WGM Elvira Berend-Sakhatova (LUX 2311) with 4.0
(66) WGM Atousa Pourkashiyan (IRI 2308) with 4.0
(87) WIM Cristina Foisor (ROU 2381) with 4.0
 So, these ladies are still in the mix for a shot at the title - if they play nearly perfectly tomorrow!

Kosteniuk, who holds the title Women's 960 World Champion, gave a 20 game simul that required she use 20 different openings.  She won 16 and drew 4.

Top German top player GM Arkadij Naiditsch (2684) stumbled against WGM Elvira Berend in R3 and again, in R5, to drop to 3.0 and according to Chess Tigers, is out of contention as they're saying the winner will need at least 9.5!  Look at the crowd watching the denouement - it's quite fascinating studying their faces!

As part of the Chess Festival, there is a separate contest for the Women's title - here are the standings after R5:

Rang Teilnehmer TWZ Attr. Land S R V Punkte PktSum MiBuch

1. WGM Zhukova,Natalia 2516 W UKR 4 1 0 4,5 13,5 9,5
2. WGM Kosteniuk,Alexandra 2522 W RUS 4 0 1 4,0 14,0 11,0
3. IM Zatonskih,Anna 2470 W USA 4 0 1 4,0 13,0 9,0
3. WGM Berend-Sakhatova,Elvira 2311 W LUX 4 0 1 4,0 13,0 9,0
5. WGM Pourkashiyan,Atousa 2308 W IRI 4 0 1 4,0 12,0 8,5
6. WIM Foisor,Cristina 2381 W ROU 4 0 1 4,0 11,0 7,0
7. WFM Van Münster,Kirsten 2170 W 2 3 0 3,5 12,0 11,0
8. WGM Paridar,Shadi 2264 W IRI 3 1 1 3,5 11,0 7,5
9. WGM Jaracz,Barbara 2280 W POL 2 3 0 3,5 10,5 8,5
10. WIM Ghader Pour Taleghani,Shayesteh 2218 W IRI 3 1 1 3,5 10,0 8,0
11. WIM Skripchenko,Almira 2458 W FRA 3 1 1 3,5 8,5 6,0
12. WGM Foisor,Sabina 2317 W USA 3 0 2 3,0 11,0 10,0
13. WGM Fischdick,Gisela 2245 W 2 2 1 3,0 11,0 9,0
14. WIM Delorme,Laurie 2237 W FRA 3 0 2 3,0 11,0 7,5
15. WGM Kochetkova,Julia 2306 W SVK 3 0 2 3,0 10,0 8,0
16. Stoeri,Laura 1924 W SUI 3 0 2 3,0 9,0 9,5
17. WFM Novkovic,Julia 2157 W 3 0 2 3,0 9,0 8,0
17. Skibbe,Diana 2121 W 3 0 2 3,0 9,0 8,0
19. Endress,Anna 2179 W 3 0 2 3,0 9,0 7,5
20. WIM Dolgova,Olga 2262 W RUS 2 2 1 3,0 9,0 7,0
21. WFM Stangl,Anita,Dr. 2126 W 3 0 2 3,0 8,0 6,0
22. WFM Foisor,Veronica 2144 W ROU 2 1 2 2,5 9,0 8,0
23. Carow,Annelen 1938 W 2 1 2 2,5 6,5 7,0
24. WIM Lauterbach,Ingrid 2169 W 2 0 3 2,0 8,0 8,5
25. Großmann,Susan 2017 W 1 2 2 2,0 7,5 9,0
26. WFM Brendel,Bergit 2065 W 2 0 3 2,0 7,0 9,0
27. Remy,Janina 1996 W 2 0 3 2,0 6,0 8,5
28. Lerch,Cornelia 1908 W 2 0 3 2,0 6,0 8,0
29. Froehlich-Dill ,Astrid 1934 W 2 0 3 2,0 6,0 7,0
30. Krasnopeyeva,Julia 1948 W 1 2 2 2,0 5,5 7,0
31. Hausrath,Michaela 1747 W 2 0 3 2,0 4,0 6,0
32. WFM Kierzek,Mira 2053 W 1 1 3 1,5 5,0 7,5
33. Folkhard,Waltraud 1818 W 1 1 3 1,5 3,5 6,5
34. Lübbers,Doris,Dr. 1607 W 1 0 4 1,0 5,0 8,0
35. Milivojevic ,Jelena 1873 W SRB 1 0 4 1,0 3,0 7,5
35. Huppertz,Andrea 1859 W 1 0 4 1,0 3,0 7,5
37. Becker,Silke 855 W 1 0 4 1,0 3,0 5,5
38. Kohler,Ekaterina 1661 W 1 0 4 1,0 2,0 6,5
39. Hock,Anna-Maria 1217 W 1 0 4 1,0 2,0 5,5
40. Arbore,Federica 1671 W ITA 1 0 4 1,0 1,0 5,5
41. Titgemeyer,Eva Maria 1242 W 1 0 4 1,0 1,0 5,0
42. Perovic-Ottstadt,Sanja 1460 W 1 0 4 1,0 1,0 3,5

Friday, August 6, 2010

Cleopatra Drank a Pearl and Won a Bet

I debated whether to put this here because I thought the story is hokey, but what the heck, she was a queen, the last Queen of Egypt.  I got a real kick out of this 17th century depiction of Cleopatra dissolving the pearl in a glass of vinegar.  All of the people are wearing 17th century style clothes!

From Discovery News
How Cleopatra Won Her Bet
Cleopatra and Marc Antony settled a wager more than 2,000 years ago. Now, a researcher believes she figured out how the Egyptian queen won the bet.
By Rossella Lorenzi
Tue Aug 3, 2010 07:00 AM ET

Cleopatra, the last queen of Egypt, might have indeed drunk a pearl cocktail in a gulp, an experimental study has concluded.

Legend has it that, in order to show her wealth and power, Cleopatra VII (69 B.C. - 30 B.C.) made a bet with her lover -- the Roman leader Marc Antony -- that she could spend 10 million sesterces on one meal.
"She ordered the second course to be served. In accordance with previous instructions, the servants placed in front of her only a single vessel containing vinegar. ... She took one earring off, and dropped the pearl in the vinegar, and when it was wasted away, swallowed it," Roman naturalist and philosopher Pliny the Elder (23 - 79 A.D.) wrote in his Natural History.

Indeed, the pearl was not just any pearl. Pliny called it "the largest in the whole of history," a "remarkable and truly unique work of nature" worth 10 million sesterces.

Although the account was considered credible in antiquity, modern scholars have dismissed the story as fiction.

Giving ancient sources the benefit of the doubt, classicist Prudence Jones of Montclair State University in New Jersey experimented with vinegar and a five-carat pearl to find out whether the acetic acid concentration is sufficient to dissolve calcium carbonate.

Rest of article.

GM Alex Lenderman To Do Fundraising Simul in New York

I saw this at Susan Polgar's chess blog.  Sounds like a great deal of fun - where else could you play a GM for $10 except New York?  Goddess, I love New York!  Hope to get back there once again...
Renowned Chess Master to Lead Fundraiser for Upcoming Production of "Art of Attack," an Insightful Dramatization of the World of Competitive Chess

Brooklyn, NY - August 6, 2010: The Cadre, an emerging theater company, today announced that Alex Lenderman, renowned Grandmaster chess player, will lead a fundraiser for Art of Attack, the company's upcoming original play about two Russian brothers' addiction to chess.

The event will take place on Saturday, August 21st, from 2 PM - 6 PM, at Holley Plaza in Washington Square Park and will give attendees the opportunity to compete against Lenderman for $10 per game. Prizes include tickets to see Art of Attack as well as chess sets and free lessons courtesy of the New York Chess and Game Shop.

Buy Tickets for Art of Attack. The play is part of the annual New York International Fringe Festival ( and can be seen at the First Floor Theater of La Mama (74 East 4th Street, New York, NY) at the following dates/times:

· Wed 8/18 @ 5:15
· Fri 8/20 @ 3
· Sat 8/21 @ 8
· Mon 8/23 @ 7
· Fri 8/27 @ 5:15

More information at Susan Polgar's chess blog.

2010 5th FIDE Women's Grand Prix - Ulaanbaatar

Rounds 5 and 6 results and standings after R6:

Round 6 (August 5, 2010)
Zhao Xue - Stefanova, Antoaneta 1-0 39 D10 Slav Defence
Koneru, Humpy - Chiburdanidze, Maia 1-0 108 E32 Nimzo Indian 4.Qc2
Xu Yuhua - Munguntuul, Batkhuyag 1-0 38 B80 Sicilian Scheveningen
Shen Yang - Kosintseva, Tatiana ½-½ 57 E32 Nimzo Indian 4.Qc2
Yildiz, Betul Cemre - Hou Yifan 0-1 70 B51 Sicilian Rossolimo
Sebag, Marie - Zhu Chen 0-1 43 C60 Ruy Lopez

Round 7 (August 6, 2010)
Stefanova, Antoaneta - Xu Yuhua 1-0 58 E06 Catalan
Hou Yifan - Shen Yang ½-½ 44 C67 Ruy Lopez Berlin
Kosintseva, Tatiana - Zhao Xue 1-0 59 C64 Ruy Lopez Classical
Chiburdanidze, Maia - Sebag, Marie 1-0 42 E10 Blumenfeld Counter Gambit
Munguntuul, Batkhuyag - Koneru, Humpy 1-0 41 B80 Sicilian Scheveningen
Zhu Chen - Yildiz, Betul Cemre 0-1 36 D20 QGA

1. Zhao Xue g CHN 2462 5 2635
2. Stefanova, Antoaneta g BUL 2560 5 2637
3. Hou Yifan g CHN 2577 5 2629
4. Kosintseva, Tatiana m RUS 2562 4½ 2594
5. Koneru, Humpy g IND 2600 4½ 2555
6. Chiburdanidze, Maia g GEO 2514 4 2566
7. Xu Yuhua g CHN 2488 3 2421
8. Munguntuul, Batkhuyag wg MGL 2421 2½ 2415
9. Zhu Chen g QAT 2476 2½ 2387
10. Shen Yang wg CHN 2435 2½ 2394
11. Yildiz, Betul Cemre wm TUR 2235 2 2350
12. Sebag, Marie g FRA 2519 1½ 2245

4 more rounds to go.  Here are the match-ups for R8:

Shen Yang .vs Zhao Xue

Xu Yuhua .vs Kosintseva Tatiana
Koneru Humpy .vs Stefanova Antoaneta
Sebag Marie .vs Munguntuul Batkhuyag
Yildiz Betul Cemre .vs Chiburdanidze Maia
Hou Yifan .vs Zhu Chen

Thursday, August 5, 2010

Neolithic Orkey Stone With Colored Zig-Zag Decorations

A cool article.  Just goes to show that Neolithic man in Orkney had the same aesthetic sense as Neolithic man in ancient Persia, where zia-zag decorated pottery goes back to about - 4000 BCE (I think - maybe even older).  Prior to the internet it took a little longer for fashions to make their way around the world...

From the
Neolithic stone network found on Orkney
Date: 03 August 2010
By Lucinda Cameron

Archaeologists revealed today that they have discovered the first evidence in the UK of stonework painted with a pattern, suggesting Neolithic people enjoyed decorating.

It comes a week after the researchers, working at the Brodgar peninsula on Orkney, found plain painted stones thought to be around 5,000 years old at the spot.

The site, described as a possible Neolithic temple precinct, is between the Stones of Stenness and the Ring of Brodgar.

The latest discovery, made late yesterday afternoon, is a stone with a zigzag chevron pattern in red pigment.

It is thought the painted and decorated stones may have been used to enhance important buildings and may have been found in entranceways or areas of the building which had particular significance.

Nick Card, of the Orkney Research Centre for Archaeology (Orca), said: "I think the Neolithic people were no different from ourselves in that these were probably special structures which they felt should be adorned in different colours.

"There has been evidence at some other Neolithic sites where paint pots have been found with remains of pigment but they were considered to be for personal adornment rather than being used on a wider scale for the decoration of buildings.

"This is a first for the UK, if not for northern Europe.

"The use of colour in this particular way was always suspected but this is the first concrete evidence we have of it."

He added: "It is not Rembrandt though, it is pretty basic designs."

One of the stones found last week were painted purple-red, while the other was red and yellow.

The paint will now be analysed but it is thought it may have been made from hermatite mixed with animal fat and perhaps milk or egg.
The 6-acre (2.5-hectare) site – the size of around five football pitches – is being excavated by teams from across the world.

Last year a structure dubbed a Neolithic "cathedral" measuring 82ft (25m) long by 65ft (20m) wide with 16ft (5m) thick outer walls was discovered at the site.

Mr Card, director of the excavations at the site, said the latest discoveries were adding to their understanding of how later Stone Age people lived.

He said: "We've always suspected colours was a part of their world.  "This is adding to the dimension of the Neolithic that many archaeologists would have thought but there was no real evidence for.

"There is a buoyant mood on site and everyone feels it is a great privilege to be here."

John the Baptist Relics in Bulgaria, Blah Blah Blah

If one ever took the time to add up all the various bones/relics that are supposed to be of St. John the Baptist, how many men would there be?  (a) 57 (b) 34 (c) 13.7 (part of a left foot seems to be missing to make a complete 14 -- perhaps several someones used it as the equivalent of a rabbit's foot for good luck charms???)

I'm joking of course - and this story is a joke.  But 'Sis sent it to me, probably because (1) she knows I am interested in biblical archaeology and (2) it's damn funny.

According to the article, John the B.'s remains are scattered around the world, heh? Let's see, John the Baptist was killed by Herod Antipas sometime in the late 20's CE? His head was chopped off - was it buried with the body? I do not believe there is an account that addresses this issue, but I'm not Jewish - there may be something in Jewish records; there is nothing in the Bible. In fact, John the B. was a minor player in the greater saga of the Bible, his only role being to proclaim Jesus as the Christ and "baptize" him in the Jordan River. That was before Christianity was instituted so what, exactly, did this baptism accomplish? Anyway, once John the B. had fulfilled his purpose of declaring Jesus the Son of God and the little Dove came down from Heaven and shown it lights over the Christ's head, John the B was out of the limelight and was, evidently, rather promptly dispatched. Christ did not resurrect him - his own cousin. I surmise this happened some time during Christ's 40 day sojourn in the desert (where he went almost immediately after being baptized) where he was constantly wrestling with the Devil's temptations, and by the time he got back to civilization he had more important things on his mind than resurrecting his dead cousin. 

Anyway, just exactly when would some enterprising Christians have dug up John the B's body and chopped it up into relics for sale to the highest bidders? I mean, that is basically what this comes down to. Think about it. They would have had to know where he was buried; they would have had to have confirmation that the body was, indeed, John the B. Did they seek permission from the nearest surviving relatives? The Temple kept records back then, the priests would have known whom to contact. Of course, if the body snatchers worked after 70 CE they were tough out of luck because the Temple was destroyed by the Romans, the records were burned, and the priests who knew the family histories were either killed or sold into slavery.

Well, here is the silly article:

From Discovery News
John the Baptist's Bones Discovered?
Analysis by Teresa Shipley
Wed Aug 4, 2010 01:51 PM ET

A 5th century monastery in the Black Sea may house the last remains of John the Baptist, the biblical prophet famous for baptizing Jesus.  Bulgarian archaeologists excavating under an ancient basilica last week unearthed a reliquary, or a container full of human relics.  Bone fragments of a human skull, hand and tooth were found inside.

The monastery is located on Sveti Ivan island, just off the coast of Bulgaria's popular seaside town of Sozopol. The archaeologists believe that a date inscribed on the alabaster jar, June 24, is a good sign that the reliquary houses John the Baptist's remains.

June 24 is the day Christian's celebrate the birth of Jesus' contemporary.  But the Vatican is waiting for more information before making a statement about the find's validity.

Fabrizio Bisconti, superintendent of the Vatican Pontifical Commission of Sacred Archaeology, told CNN that the commission "will wait until a more thorough study has been conducted, including anthropological analysis, before it will express an opinion on the finding."

According to biblical lore, John the Baptist was beheaded by the first-century Galilean ruler, Herod Antipas, for renouncing Herod's divorce and subsequent remarriage to another woman.

Bisconti also told CNN that the Church believes John the Baptists remains are currently scattered around the world, rather than being housed in one location.

Wednesday, August 4, 2010

Horse + Rider = Votive (So they say...)

This figure is 99 mm tall.  I had no idea what the heck that meant so I asked Wiki and got the following answer:  Units of Measure question: How many inches is 99 mm? 99 mm = 3.89763 in.

Hmmmm...a nice size for a mounted knight.  Notice the remainder of red paint.  The description did not extend to whether the entire piece might have been painted at one time, or just these red markings were put here and there - for a particular purpose?  Not addressed.  Was red chosen for a reason?  Not addressed.  What was the pigment made from?  Not addressed. 

This figure is identified as 6th-5th century horse and rider figurine from Cyprus (Tel Dor).

More information on the piece from the Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery:

Date: c. 600 BCE-475 BCE
Description: Acession number 1982A979. 
Little figures like this were left by worshippers at religious sanctuaries as offerings to the gods. Different types of figures were left at the sanctuaries of the different gods and goddesses.  Horsemen figures first became common on Cyprus during the 700s BC. Owning a horse would have been very expensive and it is probable that this kind of figure was left as an offering by nobles who wanted to emphasise how rich and important they were.
Hmmm, okay, but how would anyone know that a particular horse or horse/rider offering was actually left by a noble?  I mean, was someone there to watch (and possibly record???) what each person offered?  And if the horseman figure became so popular during the 700s BCE, could anyone have purchased one and offered it?  I mean, this dude on his horse isn't exactly an exquisite work of art.  So - was the purchase of a horse and rider figurine restricted to nobles only?  If not, say Mr. P, the dog-poop scooper-upper, ranked rather low on the totem pole of society back in the day, buys a figurine like this from a tired vendor at the end of a busy temple day at a discount price, sort of under-the-table.  Next day he scrapes the poop off his feet, takes a ritual bath, makes his offering at the temple of "X" god, and then dies of pneumonia a week later because he caught a draft in the bath, only the second time he was ever in a pool of water (the first time was in mother's womb).  Does Mr. P get into Heaven?  And if he does, is it the same Heaven that the nobles go to? 

Hmmm, I guess I don't buy the official supposition about the little horse and rider being a "nobles" thing --

Actually, it makes more sense to me that this was a game piece, offered up ritually at the conclusion of the game or a ritualized and much-shortened form of a game, perhaps to denote a "passage" to Heaven, i.e., the Land of the Gods.  I mean, we really don't know, do we, because perhaps we haven't been asking the right questions...  But we do know, for instance, that the ancient Egyptian game of Senet was a game of passage and that the pieces that managed to make it all the way to the end of the game and literally jumped off the board jumped into - yep - Heaven - became Imperishable Stars.  That concept was woven into just about all of Egypt's religious and symbolic art, from pre-dynastic right down to the 5th century CE, when the last Egyptian temples were forcibly closed by the Byzantine "christians" and the religious mystery schools were born, as the "pagans" went underground, so to speak.

There may be a reason that the shape of a "pawn" game piece hasn't changed very much over 5,000 years or so - from Sumer, to Egypt, to Staunton.

2010 FIDE 5th Women's Grand Prix - Ulaanbaatar

Round 5 results and standings:

Stefanova, Antoaneta - Kosintseva, Tatiana 1-0 27 A45 Trompowsky
Hou Yifan - Sebag, Marie 1-0 35 B90 Sicilian Najdorf Variation
Chiburdanidze, Maia - Xu Yuhua 1-0 32 E12 Queens Indian Petrosian
Zhu Chen - Koneru, Humpy ½-½ 37 E32 Nimzo Indian 4.Qc2
Munguntuul, Batkhuyag - Zhao Xue ½-½ 68 C87 Ruy Lopez
Yildiz, Betul Cemre - Shen Yang 0-1 36 C11 French Defence

5th FIDE GP w Ulaanbaatar (MGL), 30 vii-11 viii 2010 cat. X (2487)
1. Stefanova, Antoaneta g BUL 2560 4 2721
2. Zhao Xue g CHN 2462 4 2684
3. Hou Yifan g CHN 2577 3½ 2675
4. Koneru, Humpy g IND 2600 3½ 2597
5. Chiburdanidze, Maia g GEO 2514 3 2570
6. Kosintseva, Tatiana m RUS 2562 3 2581
7. Xu Yuhua g CHN 2488 2 2392
8. Zhu Chen g QAT 2476 1½ 2385
9. Munguntuul, Batkhuyag wg MGL 1½ 2357
10. Sebag, Marie g FRA 2519 1½ 2318
11. Shen Yang wg CHN 2435 1½ 2318
12. Yildiz, Betul Cemre wm TUR 2235 1 2260

Extracts of Cyrus Cylinder Found Engraved on Horse Bones in China!

Yep, it's no April Fool's joke - it's real.  So says Irving Finkel, a name well known to games historians.

Extracts of Cyrus Cylinder found in China
British Museum curator has identified cuneiform text inscribed on horse bones
By Martin Bailey | From issue 215, July-August 2010
Published online 2 Aug 10 (News)

LONDON. Two fossilised horse bones with cuneiform inscriptions have been found in China, carved with extracts from the Cyrus Cylinder. They were initially dismissed as fakes because of the improbability of ancient Persian texts turning up in Beijing. But following new research, British Museum (BM) specialist Irving Finkel is now convinced of their authenticity.

This discovery looks set to transform our knowledge about what is arguably the most important surviving cuneiform text, written in the world’s earliest script. Dating from 539BC, the Cyrus Cylinder was ceremonially buried in the walls of Babylon. Its text celebrates the achievements of Cyrus the Great, ruler of the Persian empire. The clay cylinder was excavated by BM archaeologists in 1879 and sent to London, where it is one of the museum’s most important antiquities.

The texts found in China inexplicably have fewer than one in every 20 of the Cyrus text’s cuneiform signs transcribed, although they are in the correct order. The two inscribed bones were donated to the Palace Museum in Beijing in 1985 by Xue Shenwei, an elderly Chinese traditional doctor who died later that year. He said that he had learned about the pair of inscriptions in 1928. He bought the first bone in 1935 and the second in 1940, and named the sellers. Xue acquired them because he thought they were written in an unknown ancient script, presumably from China. In 1966, during the Cultural Revolution, he buried the bones for protection, digging them up later. Chinese scholars who have pursued the story believe that Xue’s account is credible.

In 1983 Xue offered the bones to the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City, which collects inscriptions. It was then that specialists told him they were written in cuneiform. It was not until two years later, when Xue donated the objects, that specialist Wu Yuhong realised that the text of the first bone came from the Cyrus proclamation (the text of the second was not identified).

The discovery
Until this year it was generally assumed that the Cyrus Cylinder was a unique object, created for ceremonial burial, and that the text had not been disseminated. Then in January two fragments of an inscribed clay tablet in the BM’s collection were found to contain part of the proclamation, suggesting that it might have been widely copied. Finkel returned to the pair of Chinese bones, to reconsider whether they might be authentic. He realised that the text on the second bone was also from the Cyrus proclamation (which had been missed in 1985), and requested more information from Beijing.

Chinese Assyriologist Yushu Gong went to the Palace Museum store to examine the bones, and also arranged a new rubbing of the inscription (done with black wax on paper), which provides a much better image of the text than existing photographs. Yushu took these to London, for a workshop that was held at the BM on 23-24 June.

Are the bones fakes?
The obvious question is whether the inscriptions are fakes—although they would be bizarre objects to fake. Why would a faker use fossilised horse bone, a material never used before for this purpose? If the bones had indeed been acquired by Xue by 1940, it would not have been easy for a Chinese forger to have gained access to the Cyrus text, which only became widely known later in the 20th century. Why would a faker have carved only one in 20 of the characters, which meant that it took years before the Cyrus text was identified? And why would a faker have sold the bones in China, where there has been virtually no market for non-Chinese antiquities?

The clinching factor for Finkel is that the partial text on the bones differs slightly from that on the Cyrus Cylinder, although it is correct in linguistic terms. Cuneiform changed over the centuries, and the signs on the bones are in a less evolved form than that of the cylinder. The individual wedge-like strokes of the signs are also different and have a slightly v-shaped top, a form that was not used in Babylon, but was used by scribes in Persia.

“The text used by the copier on the bones was not the Cyrus Cylinder, but another version, probably originally written in Persia, rather than Babylon,” Finkel believes. It could have been a version carved on stone, written with ink on leather, or inscribed on a clay tablet. Most likely the original object was sent during the reign of Cyrus to the far east of his empire, in the west of present-day China.

Scholars at the workshop had little time to digest the new evidence, and inevitably there was some scepticism. But Finkel concludes that the evidence is “completely compelling”. He is convinced that the bones have been copied from an authentic version of the Cyrus proclamation, although it is unclear at what point in the past 2,500 years the copying was done.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

2010 "Thracian Princess" Bulgarian Open Women's Chess Championship

July 25 - 31, 2010
Vratsa, Bulgaria
Final Standings

Rank SNo. Name NRtg IRtg FED Pts
1 4 WIM Elitsa Raeva 2297 2286 BUL 6,5
2 5 WIM Lyubka Genova 2272 2260 BUL 6,5
3 1 WGM Margarita Voiska 2341 2330 BUL 6,5
4 7 WIM Angela Dragomirescu 2181 2181 ROU 6,5
5 2 WIM Iva Videnova 2313 2304 BUL 5,5
6 19 Maria Vasova 1846 1721 BUL 5,5
7 3 WIM Adriana Nikolova 2308 2298 BUL 5,0
8 6 WGM Suzana Maksimovic 2241 2241 SRB 5,0
9 8 WIM Pavlina Chilingirova 2237 2165 BUL 5,0
10 9 Darena Sirkova 2147 2109 BUL 5,0
11 11 Tsveta Galunova 2098 1984 BUL 5,0
12 10 Milena Stefanova 2068 1992 BUL 5,0
13 12 Yordanka Naydenova 1933 1925 BUL 5,0
14 15 Viktoria Tsekova 1855 1834 BUL 4,5
15 16 Simoneta Ivanova 1960 1827 BUL 4,5
16 13 Stefana Milutinovic 1872 1872 SRB 4,0
17 18 Elitsa Atanasova 1811 1755 BUL 4,0
18 17 Gergana Ivanova 1892 1771 BUL 4,0
19 20 Donika Shivacheva 1826 1681 BUL 4,0
20 14 Margarita Bocheva 1910 1847 BUL 4,0
21 21 Veronika Vasileva 1859 1680 BUL 4,0
22 23 Nikoleta Gospodinova 0 0 BUL 2,0
23 22 Ana Valeva 1634 0 BUL 1,0

They Did It To Themselves - Oops - No They Didn't!

Probably just about everyone is familiar with the iconic figures from Easter Island.  This is a photo of me taken at the Milwaukee Public Museum in, I think, 2007.  Check out my date :) 

Re-evaluation of the archaeological and historical record convinces more and more archaeologists that the Easter Islanders owe their destruction to their exposure to western culture.  I like seeing this kind of re-examination and re-evaluation going on!  Who knows, maybe someday historians will come around to our way of thinking that chess really is the game of the Goddess...

Article at
Outsiders blamed for Easter Island’s historic demise
02 Aug 2010

An archaeologist studying a remote Pacific island, world famous for its strange stone statues, says outsiders - and not its ancestors - should be blamed for its historic demise hundreds of years ago.

Dr Karina Croucher from The University of Manchester says her research backs a growing body of opinion which casts new light on the people living on the island of Rapa Nui, named ‘Easter Island’ by its discoverers in 1722.

“Easter Islanders’ ancestors have been unfairly accused by Westerners of being primitive and warlike, for toppling statues - or moai - and for over-exploiting the island’s natural resources,” she said.

But the art which adorns Easter Island’s landscape, volcanoes and statues, body tattoos and carved wooden figurines, when examined together, show a different picture of what the islanders were like, according to Dr Croucher.

“The carved designs - including birds, sea creatures, canoes and human figures - mimic natural features already visible in the landscape and show their complex relationship to the natural environment,” she said.

“They were a people who saw themselves as connected to the landscape, which they carved and marked as they did their own bodies and the moai statues.

“These people must have had a sophisticated and successful culture – until the Westerners arrived - and it is time we recognise that.

“Early expedition accounts repeatedly show the islanders produced a trading surplus – they were successful and self sufficient.

“It must have been quite a place to live: I imagine the sounds of the carvers dominating the soundscape as they worked on the rock.”

Dr Croucher, whose research is funded by the British Academy, added: “There is a growing body of opinion which says history has been unkind to the Easter Islanders - and my research confirms and underlines that.

“Rather than a story of self-inflicted deprivation, I agree with the view that substantial blame has to rest with Western contact, ever since Easter Island’s first sighting by Jacob Roggeveen in 1722.

“Visitors brought disease, pests and slavery, resulting in the tragic demise of the local population and culture.

“There is little archaeological evidence to support the history of internal warfare and collapse before contact with the outside world.”

Easter Island’s 19th Century history is a sad one: slave raids in 1862 reduced the Island’s population A few islanders survived slavery and were returned home, bringing with them small pox and other diseases.

The missionaries converted the remaining population to Christianity, encouraging them to abandon their traditional beliefs.

Even then, several hundred inhabitants were driven off the island to work on sugar plantations in Tahiti. By 1877, a population of just 110 people was recorded.

The academic, based at The School of Arts, Histories and Cultures, said: “Explorer Thor Heyerdahl famously asserted that it was South Americans who built the moai.

“However, rather than relying on the arrival of a South American fleet of carvers and sculptors, it is clear the moai, rock art and tattooing are very much part of the same tradition, which has Polynesian roots.

“The statues and rock art, although difficult to date with certainty, are the result of a population which flourished on the island until outside contact set the tragic course for the Island’s demise.”

Monday, August 2, 2010

2010 FIDE 5th Women's Grand Prix - Ulaanbaatar

Round 4 results and standings:

Zhao Xue - Chiburdanidze, Maia 1-0 53 A15 English counter King's Fianchetto
Kosintseva, Tatiana - Munguntuul, Batkhuyag 1-0 58 C78 Ruy Lopez Moeller Defence
Koneru, Humpy - Hou Yifan ½-½ 104 E10 Blumenfeld Counter Gambit
Xu Yuhua - Zhu Chen ½-½ 59 C60 Ruy Lopez
Sebag, Marie - Yildiz, Betul Cemre ½-½ 65 C78 Ruy Lopez Moeller Defence
Shen Yang - Stefanova, Antoaneta 0-1 58 D25 QGA

1. Zhao Xue g CHN 2462 3½ 2786
2. Kosintseva, Tatiana m RUS 2562 3 2690
3. Koneru, Humpy g IND 2600 3 2634
4. Stefanova, Antoaneta g BUL 2560 3 2654
5. Hou Yifan g CHN 2577 2½ 2623
6. Chiburdanidze, Maia g GEO 2514 2 2501
7. Xu Yuhua g CHN 2488 2 2451
8. Sebag, Marie g FRA 2519 1½ 2352
9. Zhu Chen g QAT 2476 1 2325
10. Yildiz, Betul Cemre wm TUR 2235 1 2324
11. Munguntuul, Batkhuyag wg MGL 2421 1 2324
12. Shen Yang wg CHN 2435 ½ 2203

Sunday, August 1, 2010

The Battle Over the Lewis Chess Pieces Continues

Time to put treasures on display where they belong
Published on 30 Jul 2010
By Jennifer Cunningham

The 11 carved ivory pieces of the Lewis Chessmen belonging to the National Museum of Scotland have been joined by 25 of the 82 pieces held by the British Museum for a Scottish tour.

On display in Edinburgh until September 19, they will spend next summer in Stornoway, the museum nearest to where they were found at Uig in the west of Lewis.

The intricate 12th century carvings are the Scottish equivalent of the Koh-i-Noor diamond: unique, priceless and in safekeeping far from the place they were originally found. Both are the subject of campaigns to have them returned home and both raise similar questions over how disputes over custodianship of cultural artefacts of international importance should be resolved.

On an official visit to India designed to increase business between the two countries, David Cameron refused to return the Koh-i-Noor on the grounds that if every request were granted the British Museum would be emptied.

The literally priceless diamond (no gemmologist has put a value on it) means mountain of light but it also now betokens the murky dealings which haunt the provenance of some of the world’s greatest cultural artefacts.

The Koh-i-Noor was mined in India and seized by the British after they gained control of Punjab. It was presented to Queen Victoria and has been part of the British Crown Jewels for over 150 years. It was last worn by the late Queen Mother and displayed on top of her crown when her coffin lay in state after her death in 2002.

That firmly establishes its place in British culture but in India, a campaign for the return of the 105-carat diamond has attracted high-profile backers including Tushar Gandhi, great grandson of the leader of India’s independence movement, Mahatma Gandhi, who wants it returned as “atonement for the colonial past”. Labour politicians Keith Vaz and Tom Watson have suggested that a British government intent on a positive new partnership with India should seal it with a return of the fabled diamond.

That is not as easy as it sounds. There is substance to Cameron’s argument that granting one request would not only open the gates to more but would also empty the British Museum. It is well-known that Egypt wants the Rosetta Stone to be back in Cairo and Greece has been campaigning for 30 years for the Elgin Marbles to be returned to Athens and has even built the new Acropolis Museum to boost their case. Nigeria wants 900 historic bronzes back.

In addition the Koh-i-Noor, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has a list “too long to handle” of cultural treasures it wants foreign countries to return. Those in Britain include the Amravati railings, a series of limestone carvings dating from around AD100, acquired from a Buddhist temple in Andhra Pradesh by Victorian explorers and the Saraswati idol, a sculpture of the Hindu deity from the Bhoj temple.

A few museums have been willing to part with individual smaller items, such as the Ghost Shirt, taken from the body of a warrior at the Wounded Knee massacre and returned to the native American Lakota people by Glasgow City Council in 1999, and preserved Maori heads returned to New Zealand from Kelvingrove and Perth Museum. These are the easy cases as there is no appetite in the 21st century to hang on to grisly human remains and there is equal reluctance to deprive communities of religious significance.

Major items are a different matter. Most museums are reluctant to even enter talks about returning them, pointing out that in many cases they are banned by law or their founding articles from divesting their collections. The director of the British Museum, Neil MacGregor, is currently using a 100-episode series on BBC Radio 4 to demonstrate how the breadth and depth of its collection illustrates the inter­connection of cultures throughout the world over the last two million years.

This is the kernel of the argument; that far from being the souvenir collection of the British Empire’s pith-helmeted governing classes, the global range and significance of the collection is necessary to understand human history. It is bolstered by the fact that they have been preserved in optimum conditions, whereas many would have deteriorated had they remained in their country of origin.

In addition, they are on display to a public that does not have to pay to see them. The Crown Jewels, however, can only be viewed by paying the admission charge (£17 for an adult) to the Tower of London. It is a reminder that the economic gains from cultural tourism are an additional factor in many repatriation demands.

The difficulty of unravelling the historical complexities of what was seized as booty and what was bought legitimately has been recognised in the 1970 Unesco Convention requiring the return of illicitly traded artefacts, which cannot be applied retrospectively. That must not prevent action on recent thefts or unauthorised sales, such as the 9,000 artefacts looted from the Iraq Museum of Antiquities in the wake of the 2003 invasion.

Even if the thorny questions of ownership, entitlement and custodial expertise are resolved, the final question of where is home can prove equally tricky. It is a safe bet that when the travelling chessmen reach the Museum nan Eilean in Stornoway next summer, there will be a campaign for at least some of the pieces to be returned to Uig, particularly if the planned St Kilda Centre can provide sufficient security.

That will find popular appeal but those who support the theory that they were probably hidden in the sand dunes by someone shipwrecked en route from Norway may suggest they go to Scandinavia.

It is time to recognise that the most important thing is that such treasures are on public display. Wherever possible, that should be in the place they are most closely associated with.

That is more likely to be achieved by collaboration and agreeing loans than by acrimonious ownership contests that are doomed to failure.
Yeah, and what she's not saying is what happens if the Scots decided not to give the on-loan Lewis pieces back once the show is over? 

I doubt England would send it the Army.  But there would be hell to pay if museums could no longer trust that artifacts loaned out to others would be returned per agreement.  Guess what - no more world tours of artifacts that otherwise one would only see in the pages of a purchased exhibit catalog (which are not exactly inexpensive) or online photographs - if available.  Many precious artifacts are not available in photographs, even from museums such as the British Museum, the Met and the Louvre, let alone lesser-known museums that hold equally precious artifacts, such as rare game boards and ancient gaming pieces. 

Fabulous World Tour of Belitung Wreck Artifacts Organized

If this comes within 1,000 miles of Milwaukee I'm going, I don't care how I have to get there. The artifacts are mind-blowing amazing. Wow!

News at
Smithsonian and Singapore Organize World Tour of Shipwreck Treasure

WASHINGTON, DC.- The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., the Singapore Tourism Board and the National Heritage Board of Singapore today announced a partnership to organize the first exhibition and international tour of one of the oldest and most important marine archaeological finds of the late 20th century.

Bronze mirrors, often called TLV mirrors, were popular during the
Han Dynasty (c. 220 BCE-220 CE) and this one would have been a  valuable antique at the time
of the 9th century shipwreck.  One can only imagine how it became part of the extraordinary cargo.
The mirrors are associated with the goddess Xi Wang Mu,
(Queen Mother of the West), the practice of divination and the ancient game of Liubo. 
The exhibition will focus on the 1998 discovery of a ninth-century shipwreck and its astonishing cargo of about 60,000 objects from Tang dynasty China, ranging from mass-produced ceramics to rare and extraordinary items of finely worked gold. The cargo had laid undisturbed on the ocean floor for more than 1,100 years until sea-cucumber divers discovered it off the coast of Indonesia's Belitung Island. The ship, an Arab dhow, and its contents confirm the existence of a direct maritime trade route (alluded to in ancient Chinese and Arabic texts) from China to the Persian Gulf and beyond-well before the Portuguese set sail in the 15th century.

The discovery offers scholars and scientists an unprecedented time capsule of knowledge about the period and a wealth of unanswered questions that will fuel research for decades to come.

The grand opening of the exhibition will take place in Singapore in late 2010 or early 2011. The Sackler Gallery will host the U.S. premiere in spring 2012, coinciding with the museum's 25th anniversary celebration. The exhibition is expected to travel for about five years to major museums in Asia, the United States, Europe, the Middle East and Australia.

A die recovered from the wreck.  Where there is one, there are more.  Was this a personal possession of 
one of the crew?    Did it belong to a game that was being shipped back west?  You can see this is in the
 'modern' form of die with which we are familiar today, cubic, with each face marked with a circle from one to six.  
"We are grateful for the opportunity to collaborate with Singapore on this historic project," said Julian Raby, director of the Freer and Sackler galleries. "The exhibition and tour will enable people around the world to connect with these extraordinary artifacts and feel the impact of a remarkable story that forever changes our view of ancient global trade. Singapore has acted with great understanding and forethought by protecting and preserving these objects collectively as a world treasure and for generously presenting them to the public in the form of an international traveling exhibition."

From the National Geographic (see link below).  These ivory "acorns" were tentatively
identified as "gaming pieces."   I'm pretty sure they are, but as to what game they may
have belonged - it's anyone's guess.  The shape reminds me of 9 men's morris pieces, or Pachisi pieces.
  And here's a second die that looks very similar to the image above. 
The cargo, known as the "Tang Shipwreck Treasure: Singapore's Maritime Collection," was purchased with the support of the estate of Tan Sri Khoo Teck Puat shortly after its discovery but has never been publically displayed on a large scale. In the years following their recovery from the sea the objects have remained in private storage, where they have been studied and carefully restored.

"The 'Tang Shipwreck Treasure' has a special meaning for Singapore," said Aw Kah Peng, chief executive of the Singapore Tourism Board. "Its compelling story resonates with Singapore's growth into a premier port and trading hub. Situated at the crossroads of the East and West, Singapore has always benefitted from the cultural exchange created through trade among the Chinese, Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian civilizations, and maintains the same cosmopolitan outlook today. We are particularly honored to join with the Smithsonian's Freer and Sackler galleries to develop this important exhibition."

The cargo will provide the focal point for an exhibition of dramatic scope, illustrating the dynamic interchange of ninth-century geopolitical powerhouses along the maritime silk route from Changan (modern Xian) to Baghdad, as well as the human stories of those who toiled in China's factory-like kilns and the ship's crew, whose few surviving belongings provide clues to their multi-ethnic identities.

Changsha ware plate with ancient symbol of the Goddess, the reverse swastika.
The exhibition will reflect the range and size of the find and its significance, as the largest consignment of Tang Dynasty export goods ever discovered: lead ingots, bronze mirrors, spice-filled jars, thousands of glazed bowls, ewers and other fine ceramics, including some of the oldest cobalt-blue-and-white ceramics made in China. Among the anticipated highlights of the exhibition is a small cache of spectacular, intricately worked vessels of silver and gold, unparalleled in quality and design. Why they were carried by the ship and who was destined to receive them are among many questions provoked by the find.

"The extraordinary story of the cargo-a testament of cultural exchanges and interactions in Asia via the Maritime Silk Route-resonates with our work to promote understanding of the rich cultures that make up Singapore's multi-ethnic society," said Michael Koh, chief executive of the National Heritage Board. "Through our partnership with the Freer and Sackler galleries, this remarkable story can now be presented to a wider audience, both locally and internationally."

Often referred to as the Belitung Shipwreck, in reference to the nearby Indonesian island, the dhow, approximately 21 feet wide and 58 feet long, is the only vessel of Arab origin ever found in Southeast Asian waters. Although the goods carried by the ship originated in China, the ship is similar to a type built in the Middle East during the period and for centuries thereafter. The port of departure and destination are unknown, but scholars believe that the ship was bound for the Middle East with a full load of goods from a southern Chinese port, possibly Guangzhou. An accurate reproduction of this vessel, sewn together without the use of a single nail, has been made in Oman and was recently presented by the Sultanate of Oman to the government and people of Singapore. Named The Jewel of Muscat, the vessel sailed from Muscat Feb. 16 and docked in Singapore July 3.
For further information:

Information on recovery of items from the wreck and some photos.
Photogallery at National Geographic.
Inside the Storerooms of the Belitung Shipwreck, by Dr. Victor Mair.

2010 5th FIDE Women's Grand Prix - Ulaanbaatar

Round 3 Results and Standings:

Round 3 (August 1, 2010)
Hou Yifan - Xu Yuhua 1-0 29 C07 French Tarrasch
Chiburdanidze, Maia - Kosintseva, Tatiana ½-½ 42 D38 QGD Ragozin
Sebag, Marie - Shen Yang ½-½ 56 C65 Ruy Lopez Berlin
Munguntuul, Batkhuyag - Stefanova, Antoaneta 0-1 54 C67 Ruy Lopez Berlin
Yildiz, Betul Cemre - Koneru, Humpy ½-½ 74 B40 Sicilian Classical
Zhu Chen - Zhao Xue 0-1 66 E39 Nimzo Indian 4.Qc2

5th FIDE GP w Ulaanbaatar (MGL), 30 vii-11 viii 2010 cat. X (2487)
1. Zhao Xue g CHN 2462 2½ 2702
2. Koneru, Humpy g IND 2600 2½ 2669
3. Hou Yifan g CHN 2577 2 2629
4. Chiburdanidze, Maia g GEO 2514 2 2639
5. Kosintseva, Tatiana m RUS 2562 2 2647
6. Stefanova, Antoaneta g BUL 2560 2 2595
7. Xu Yuhua g CHN 2488 1½ 2443
8. Sebag, Marie g FRA 2519 1 2382
9. Munguntuul, Batkhuyag wg MGL 2421 1 2378
10. Yildiz, Betul Cemre wm TUR 2235 ½ 2243
11. Zhu Chen g QAT 2476 ½ 2255
12. Shen Yang wg CHN 2435 ½ 2240

Incredible Restoration of Mayan Funerary "Tapestry"


Maya Funerary Tapestry Restored and Ready for Exhibition
MEXICO CITY.- More than 1,600 years ago, nearly 8,000 shells and seeds gave form to a tapestry part of the funerary attire of a high rank personage of the ancient city of Calakmul. After its discovery in 1998 and hard work restoring and reconstructing it, the piece will be exhibited for the first time at the National Museum of Anthropology (MNA).

The unique piece which design represents the way Mayas conceived the world, will be exhibited at “Rostros de la divinidad. Los mosaicos mayas de piedra verde” (Faces of Divinity. Greenstone Maya Mosaics), to be opened in August 12th 2010, and where funerary offerings of 5 Maya rules will be displayed.

The small tapestry was placed between 375 and 450 AD, to the left of an important character of Calakmul, Campeche. This person was buried inside Structure III, and was discovered in 1998 by archaeologist Sophia Pincemin, as well as the rich offering of ceramics and jadeite.

Between 2008 and 2009, the funerary tapestry began to be restructured by Sofia Martinez del Campo Lanz, specialist from the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH). Parting from the red coloration that some small pieces conserved, the order in which they were found and several essays of collocation of shells and seeds, it was possible to complete the puzzle.

“Restoration of the tapestry not only represents the rescue of a master piece of Maya art, but of the cultural and ritual meaning it had for this civilization more than 1,600 years ago”, commented Sofia Martinez del Campo, when explaining that according to images represented, the piece had the aim of helping the dignitary to transcend in a spiritual way the 3 levels of cosmos: celestial, earthly and underground.

The tapestry was confectioned with 6,630 seeds of the Lithospermum genus and 1,648 cut shells of five different species: Morum tuberculosum, Oliva reticularis, Oliva sayana, Marginella labiata y Marginella carnea.

According to studies conducted at INAH laboratories, where species were identified, “Seeds have a hard cover that protects them. Maya artisans extracted the internal material by using indirect heat; we know this because seeds show evidence of having been exposed to fire, maybe using a comal (flat griddle). Then they were sewn to a cloth or leather piece that disintegrated in time”, explained the restorer.

Martinez del Campo mentioned that identification of shells was in charge of archaeologist Adrian Velasquez and biologist Belem Zuñiga, from Templo Mayor Archaeological Project, and biologist Norma Valentin, researcher at INAH Sub Direction of Laboratories and Academic Support. Identification of seeds was in charge of Jose Luis Alvarado and Maria Susana Xehuantzli, researchers at INAH Laboratory of Archaeobotanicals.

The restorer explained that once the proposal of assemblage was formulated, it was achieved to determine the order in which pieces were originally arranged. Then a linen support was confectioned, reinforced and the nearly 8,000 pendants were attached.

“It was a surprise to find out that this funerary tapestry represents the 3 levels of cosmos”, expressed Martinez del Campo when mentioning that Mayas represented the sky, the earth and the underworld, united by a central axis.

The celestial part was created with 13 shells of the Oliva genus, while the earthly one is framed in a rectangle located at the central part. In it, with small seeds, a milpa (field) was represented and parcels delimited with lines made with shells that still conserve the red color.

“For Mayas, red was associated with blood and fertility; placing the red shells in the earth symbolized the ritual bloodshed that fed the soil”, mentioned the restorer.

At the center of the tapestry, 2 groups of Oliva shells were cut and carved to resemble skulls and faces. “In Maya art, facial features had patterns that represented expressions of deities and other supernatural beings.

“There is a pattern of 4 faces that would represent the presence of these beings called Pauahtun or Bacabs, linked to the cult to water and who supported the cosmos.

“The conjunct of faces and skulls is framed with bigger shells that represent an underground river. The scheme represents the transitional existence facing death of the body and the mandatory descent to the underworld”.

After almost 2 years of restoration and interpretation work, the funerary tapestry of Calakmul will be displayed at the Indigenous Cultures Hall of MNA, where an enormous photography will help appreciate details, as well as information cards where interpretation of the tapestry is explained, concluded the INAH restorer.

Review: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt

Hmmmm....  Well, as 'Sis always says, sex sells - see below.

"Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt" through Jan. 2 at The Franklin Institute, 222 N. 20th St., Philadelphia; 215-448-1200; Adult tickets $26.50 Monday-Thursday, $29.50 Friday-Sunday. Kids 11 and under $19.50 daily.

Cleopatra gets the royal treatment in Philadephia exhibit
By Ray Mark Rinaldi
The Denver Post
Posted: 07/24/2010 12:22:59 AM MDT
Updated: 07/24/2010 12:24:19 AM MDT

The Berlin Cleopatra, controversial sculpture - is it -
or is it not - her?
PHILADELPHIA — In Cleopatra's world, King Tut is so yesteryear.

Sure, Tut was an ancient wonder, a boyish monarch who ruled the center of civilization and assembled one of the showiest burial plots on the planet.

But Cleopatra was a modern woman, relatively speaking, with a more contemporary lure. Strong, smart and assertive, she broke the mold for a queen of her day. Yes, it all ended tragically, but until then she lived the kind of life — the clothes, the power, the famous boy toys — that plays perfectly to today's celebrity-awed world.

That siren image is at the center of "Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt," which premiered at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia last month and continues there through Jan. 2. The exhibit is a dramatic, multimedia journey back in time, weaving together the lore of this larger-than-life historical figure with tales of the daring, present-day archaeologists who search endlessly for the artifacts of her time.

Anyone who toured Tut's riches on their recent travels across the United States (the exhibit "Tutankhamun: The Golden King and the Great Pharaohs" is currently at the Denver Art Museum) will recognize this theatrical style of resurrecting the Egyptian empire. It is produced by the same team, led by National Geographic, Arts and Exhibitions International and the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities.

And if Tut's mix of films, graphics and real treasures, set to evocative music, lighting and narration, thrilled you, a journey to this family-friendly city for the new Cleopatra fest is likely to do the same.

The shows have distinct personalities, partly because Cleopatra lived 69-30 B.C., a dozen or so centuries after Tut, and historians know more about her. The last pharaoh of Egypt, she lived in a time that mirrored the great days of the Roman Empire, and she mingled with leaders from around the globe.

There's also the fact that there was no great find of Cleopatra's tomb to mirror the focus of the Tut exhibit. While "Tutankhamun's" centerpiece is the actual objects buried with him, Cleopatra relies on relics from the time period that reference her. The exhibition's great headless stature of an Egyptian queen of the day — and it is a beautiful, graceful piece of art rather than simple artifact — may or may not be Cleo.

Milton Berle camps it up as Cleo in 1962 televisonn special.
Seductive swinger

But the real difference is the way the exhibition in Philadelphia exploits gender. It celebrates the queen's "charm and brilliance" and touts her ability to "captivate" Julius Caesar and, later, Mark Antony. She is a woman who "captured the hearts" of the rich and powerful.

The fact that she was a cunning queen who ruled assuredly is surely in there, but the main takeaway is that Cleo was a seductive swinger who used her spunk and wiles to make her way. Part of that is because of the exhibition's inclusion of Hollywood movies — don't miss the clip of Elizabeth Taylor and other stars halfway through; the suicide scenes rock — and also to the sexy voice of "Cleo," accented and alluring, that plays on the audio narration that comes with the entrance fee.

There's more to it, of course. Visitors learn plenty about the final days of the doomed Ptolemaic dynasty. The artifacts, of bronze and diorite, reveal a time of surprising craftsmanship and sleek style. It's all impressive, from the giant stone deities to the elegant jewelry to the everyday ladles and pitchers to the frightful armaments that kept Alexandria mighty and prosperous for centuries.

The surrounding personalities charm, as well. There's first and foremost Dr. Zahi Hawass, the charismatic modern-day explorer who has become the face of Egypt's quest for its own past, searching for Cleopatra's tomb on land. His co-star is French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio, who leads the search for Ptolemaic treasures in the coastal sea where the great cities of their day have been submerged by tidal shifts. Both men excel at bringing out the drama of their work.

It's tough to share billing with the most famous woman in history, but these guys, because of their great exploits, make it happen, grounding a fantastical trip to a queen's land in present-day realities.
This person does not recommend visiting the exhibit at all:
Review of ‘Cleopatra: The Search for the Last Queen of Egypt’ at the Franklin Institute
by Andrew Bull on July 25, 2010
in Art, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Art & Museums

Does Pottery Style Connect the Nile Valley and Syria 5000 Years Ago?

5000 Years Old Archaeological Pottery Craft Unearthed in Syria
By H. Sabbagh
Sunday, 25 July 2010 00:00

The excavations uncovered great numbers of pottery known as "black clay" that strongly imply connections between the occupants of Houran and the people of the Nile Valley.

According to these discoveries, the pottery craft emerged in Houran around 3000 BC, producing pottery of various sizes and purposes, most important of which are those discovered in tombs dating back to the Bronze Age (3100-2100 BC) indicating that the people of Houran at the time believed in an afterlife and buried simple items needed by the deceased with them, similar to the ancient Egyptians.

Archaeologist Yasser Abu Nuqta said most of pottery findings in Houran date back to the early, middle and late Bronze, Iron, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Islamic Ages.

The uncovered pottery includes lanterns, containers, plates, jars, glasses and bottles of various sizes used for a range of purposes, with the various specimens giving a glimpse at the development of the pottery craft and the new techniques that were introduced to it due to cultural interaction and the prosperity of the region throughout the ages.

Abu Nuqta pointed out that the Bronze Age pottery is distinguished by the impurities and stone fragments in the thick clay used in making them, saying that the people of Houran gradually began to purify the clay and bake it at higher temperatures.

During the Roman Age, Houran pottery became beautiful and well-constructed as the use of stone, bone and wooden moulds was introduced into the craft. The same period is characterized by the appearance of the red clay known as "terra sigillata," the considerable attention to decorations and patterns, and the appearance of black clay which is produced by using black soil in the clay mix and baking pottery in closed, smoke-filled kilns.

The Islamic Age saw the emergence of a new technique where pottery was painted with oxidized metals, in addition to multi-colored pottery. Pottery from this era was influenced by Chinese and Iranian art.

Around 4,200 pieces of pottery were discovered by the Daraa Directorate of Archaeology, 1,200 of which were uncovered during the current season at the Tal al-Ashaari tombs which date back to 2100-1600 BC.

Curator of Daraa National Museum Ayham al-Zoubi said that the governorate is known for the black clay pottery which was decorated using needles, noting that this type of pottery is attributed to the Sinai region, while recent studies suggest that Houran may be its source, which affirms that the two civilizations were connected either through trade or wars, adding that discoveries indicate the existence of forms of Ancient Egyptian civilizations in some areas in Houran.

Al-Zoubi pointed out that pottery offers a glimpse of the development of science, economy and religion, saying that the people of Houran used large clay jars to bury the dead and knew the concept of protecting property by applying stamps specific to each merchant on exported goods to protect them from theft or loss.

He also noted that white clay fragments of Cypriot origin prove the existence of commerce between Houran and Cyprus, adding that the area provided potters with all the ingredients they need.

For her part, Curator of Bosra Museum Iman al-Mafaalani said that there are 435 pieces of pottery in Bosra Museum that date back to periods ranging from the late Bronze Age to the Islamic Age, most notable of which are the lanterns used to light family mausoleums according to the tradition at the time, and small explosive devices used during the Ayyubid era.

She pointed out that various expeditions working in Bosra uncovered pottery at the marketplace, the amphitheater and Roman baths, adding that the lanterns dating back to the Islamic era show considerable attention to geometric decorations. (SANA)
I would like to see some examples of the 5,000 year old pottery excavated at Daraa to compare it equally old Egyptian ware.  Since the image included in the article is not tagged or identified in any way, there is no way to know if it is actually from the dig or, if it is from the dig, what its age is, or if the image is just being used by way of illustration and is of something else entirely -- I've run into that issue before.  So, I have not included the image in the article at Global Arab Network.  Below is a photo I took at the Met in May, 2009 of various examples of Naqada pottery, ancient Egypt.

Some More Images of Na'pi Stone Effigies

Left image: Dinosaur Provincial Park. Right image: Ross effigy (cairn as head?)

Napi figure at British Block Cairn.

All images Courtesy of Heritage Resource Management Branch, Alberta.
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